Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Biola Essay SamplesHave you ever wanted to know about the Biola essay samples available to help you prepare for your exams? Most of the students at Biola have suffered through tough times because of exams. It can be hard to get ready for the exams and this can become even more difficult if you don't have a good preparation guide.The Biola Essay samples are there to help you in preparing for your exams by letting you know all that you need to know about what to expect when taking them. They give you tips on how to make your papers and essays interesting, giving you an edge over the other students who take them. Biola gives you helpful tips on how to prepare for the exam so that you can maximize your time and avoid wasting it on useless information.One of the Biola essay samples is the 'Do it Now!' page. This page will let you know what you need to do now. This is a good way to get yourself geared up and ready for the exam. You can then see the important things that you need to remembe r so that you can answer the questions you will be asked.Another Biola essay sample is the 'List of resources' page. This page will give you a list of different types of questions you will be asked on your exam. Once you have these tips and information, you will be ready to answer the test, providing you with the knowledge and skills needed to make it to the end of the examination.The other essay samples that you can find on the Biola website include: the 'Forget what you have heard about the test', 'Take the exam as if it were your last exam', 'Take the exam as if it were your last exam', 'Avoid wasting time', 'Prepare for the exam like you would prepare for a major test', 'Achieving great grades', 'Test Prep at Your Own Pace', 'The Things You Should Not Do When Preparing For Your Exam', 'Success Starts With Preparation'Don't Lose Your Focus'. These essays are intended to give you the ideas that you need in order to prepare yourself for the exam. Once you have that information, you can focus on the skills that you will need to pass the test.One of the best parts about the Biola essay samples is that they are offered free of charge. There is no cost associated with this type of help.In fact, these Biola essay samples are free for everyone and you can take them right away. Just use the links below to access the tips and advice that you will need in order to prepare for your exam.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Population density is an often reported and commonly compared statistic for places around the world. Population density is the measure of the number of people per unit area, commonly represented as people per square mile (or square kilometer). The population density of the planet (including all land area) is about 38 people per square mile (57 per sq km).Ã The population density of the United States is approximately 87.4 people per square mile, according to the 2010 U.S. Census. Computing Population Density To determine an areas population density, divide an areas total population by the land area in square miles (or square kilometers). For example, Canadas population of 35.6 million (July 2017 estimated by the CIA World Factbook), divided by the land area of 3,855,103Ã square miles (9,984,670Ã sq km) yields a density of 9.24 people per square mile.Ã Although this number would seem to indicate that 9.24Ã people live on each square mile of Canadian land area, the density within the country varies dramatically; a vast majority lives in the southern part of the country. Density is only a raw gauge to measure a populations disbursement across the land. Density can be computed for any area,Ã as long as one knows the size of the land area and the population within that area. The population density of cities, states, entire continents, and even the world can be computed. What Country Has the Highest Density? The tiny country of Monaco has the worlds highest population density. With an area of three-fourths of a square mile (2 sq km) and a total population of 30,645, Monaco has a density of almost 39,798 people per square mile. However, becauseÃ Monaco and other microstates have very high densities due to their extremely small size, Bangladesh (population 157,826,578)Ã is often considered the most densely populated country, with more than 2,753 people per square mile. What Country Is the Most Sparse? Mongolia is the worlds least densely populated country, with only five people per square mile (2 per sq km). Australia and Namibia tieÃ for a close second with 7.8 people per square mile (3 per sq km). These two countries are further examples of density being a limited statistic, as Australia may be huge, but the population resides mainly on its coasts. Namibia has the same density figure but a much smaller total land area. Most Tightly Packed Continent Perhaps not surprisingly, the most densely populated continent is Asia. Here are the population densities of the continents: North America - 60.7 people per square mileSouth America - 61.3 people per square mileEurope - 187.7 people per square mileAsia - 257.8Ã people per square mileAfrica - 103.7 people per square mileAustralia - 7.8 people per square mile Most Densely Populated Hemisphere About 90 percentÃ of the Earths people live on 10 percent of the land. Additionally, about 90 percent of the people live north of the equator in the Northern Hemisphere.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Meritocracy and Structure in Gender Inequality In the past half century, America has seen a historic decline in gender inequality across many realms of society. Women have reached unprecedented levels of success, finding equality in education, employment and political representation. Yet despite these gains, inequality remains a persistent issue. It is particularly prominent in the workplace, where women face the glass ceiling effect and a significant gender wage gap across all professions. A closer look at the competing explanations Ã¢â¬â broadly defined as meritocratic versus structural Ã¢â¬â shows that although the first may play a role in unequal pay, the second, which encompasses systemic problems of discrimination and gender Ã¢â¬Å"pay penalties,Ã¢â¬ contribute quite significantly to inequality in the workplace and to pay gaps in particular. Literature Review Gender inequality is broadly understood to be the unequal distribution of economic resources between men and women. It is a nearly universal problem that women suffer from lower access to resources than men. Recent studies show that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s position relative to men has improved around the world (Hausmann, Tyson and Zahidi 2007), and America is no exception. In fact, American values which drive globalization and economic growth may play a role in the worldwide dissemination of ideals of equality between the genders (Dorius 2010). So why does a country that values economic growth and gender equality have such a persistent wageShow MoreRelatedAssess the functionalist explanations of social inequality1181 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Asses the Functionalist explanations of Social Inequality. (40) Social Inequality refers to any difference between groups or individuals in society which results in one having inferior life chances than the other. Functionalists believe these inequalities are the result of the meritocracy we live in. This is a system based on the idea that social stratification is necessary and desirable for the society. Functionalists argue that inequalities have a purpose; they are functional for society. FunctionalismRead MoreAssess the Contribution of Marxism to Our Understanding of the Role of Education1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesan important ISA and it performs two important functions. Firstly, it reproduces class inequality by transmitting it from generation to generation, by failing each successive generation of working class pupils in turn, as mentioned in Item A. secondly; it legitimates class inequality by producing ideologies that disguise its true cause. The function of ideology is to persuade workers to accept that inequality is inevitable and that t hey deserve their subordinate position in society. If they acceptRead MoreAssess the view that the main function of the education system is to reproduce and legitimise social inequalities930 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe education system has faults and many inequalities throughout it. The inequalities can be seen in many different areas including, meritocracy, different social classes, gender and ethnic inequalities, racism, cultural capital, and repressive state apparatuses etc. Various sociologists have different views about the education system and what the inequalities consist of. The neo-Marxist Althusser (1971) disagrees that the main function of the education is the transmission of common values. HeRead MoreThe Dream Of The American Dream1047 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe Dream to also be stratified. This hierarchy of possibilities is not accounted for in the rhetoric of the American Dream, due to the assumptions of innate freedom and equality. 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Stratification is aRead MoreGender Inequality Across All Professions1799 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn the past half century, America has seen a historic decline in gender inequality across many realms of society. Women have reached levels of success that they never have before, finding equality in education, employment and political representation. Yet despite these gains, inequality remains a persistent issue. It is particularly prominent in the workplace, where women face the glass ceiling effect and a significant gender wage gap across all professions. A closer look at the competing explanationsRead MoreLack Of Socio Cultural Factors1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesquality educati on with an outcome of lower quality futures. Ã¢â¬Å"It is one thing to understand that in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society many minority groups are educationally disadvantaged due to their race, ethnicity, geographical location, socioeconomic status and gender. It is quite another thing to think that schools might actually be implicated in cementing rather than disrupting this disadvantage; but in this chapter that is what we will be suggesting to you.Ã¢â¬ (Groundwater-Smith et al, 2009, p.73). Through analyzingRead MoreThe Sociological Explanations for Class Inequality Essay example1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Sociological Explanations for Class Inequality There is much debate in sociology about whether class is still important. Many argue that class is no longer important as an individuals identity and life chances are based more status and cultural factors such as lifestyle, values, intelligence, education and the like, the post-modernists state that class has ceased to be the prime determinant of identity and suggest that societies are now organised around consumptionRead MoreWomen Of The Upper Ranks Of Corporate America Essay1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto go up against difficult tasks. Yet when asked whether they want a top role in their companies or industries, a majority of women say they would rather not grab the brass ring. Gender inequality can be defined as allowing people different opportunities due to perceived differences based solely on issues of gender. This thought of the persecuted versus the oppressor is apparent all throughout history; even in religious terms. Some can go back to God s creation. For instance, in the Bible, GodRead MoreWhat Strategies Can Work For A Business Culture Where Family Diversity Is Respected And Valued933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhat Strategies Can Organizations Use to Address Gender Inequality in the Workplace? Managers should be mindful of assuming that women have greater family-work inconsistencies than men, and that this can impact their views of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suitability for promotions. Companies should make an effort to create a business culture where family diversity is respected and valued. Companies that permit the family-work conflict bias to exist stand the chance of being looked upon by outsiders as discriminatory
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Oxidative Stress In Aquatic Ecosystems? Answer: Individuals are always trying to adjust to the environmental demands and changes. Hence, stress is defined as the imbalance between the environmental demands and the capacity of an individual to adapt to the changes in the environment (Engelder, 2014). Selye defines stress as the non-specific neuroendocrine response to the body. However, Selye removed the use of neuroendocrine fro the definition because he realized that stress affects all other organs of an individual starting from the cardiovascular system, to the pulmonary system and the renal systems at different levels (Muir, 2012). Another definition of stress describes that stress is depended on age and health, once an individual grows older and the body tends to get attracted to various diseases, then the individual loses the power to deal with the disease both physically as well as mentally. As a result, the deteriorating health among the aged individuals also causes stress (Violanti, Paton and Dunning, 2012). The first definition that defines stress as he inability of an individual to cope with the environmental demands is the appropriate definition of stress. However, as far as the case of Mrs. G is concerned, the third definition that defines stress as the experience by an aged individual due to deteriorating health is best suited for the area of concern. Mrs. G suffers from pneumonia as well as as hypertension. She is 75 years old and she is unable to cope with the situation that she sis been affected by the deadly disease. The disease is the main reason of stress for Mrs. G. When Mrs. G had seen a thief stealing money from the money jar, her mental as well as physical state might had been affected due to the scene. Mentally, she might have become nervous. However, physically also there had been various changes that stress can cause to a person. One of such change is called sympathetic aviation. When a person goes through some stressful situation, some responses are triggered in the sympathetic nervous system. Once the sympathetic nervous system gets triggered, adrenalin and noradrenalin which together is called the catecholamine is produced in the body. Eventually, there are certain changes that take place in the body like fluctuation in the blood pressure, fluctuation in the heart rate, sweating and dilation of the pupil (Haryana and Punj, 2012). The changes in the body are quite similar to the flight and fight response as described by Cannon. Though, small changes does not affect the body, yet as Mrs. G is old and prolonged production of adrenalin and sympathetic fluctuation can result in the problems in the body like formation of blood clot, deposition of fat, increase in blood pressure, formation of plaque, increased in the heart rate, immune-suppression, irregular heartbeats. The other changes that will take place in Mrs. G is the activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system due to stress. This result in production of cortisol which if released at a high level can cause the dysfunction of the immune system and the damage of neurons in the hippocampus. The changes in turn will cause psychiatric problems and infection in the body (Morris and Jackson, 2012). It has been seen that Mrs. G is experiencing stress for the past few months. She is already old, and when her husband passed away, she started feeling more stressed up (Abele, Vazquez-Medina and Zenteno-Savin, 2012). Eventually, she developed flu, pneumonia and doctors said that she even developed hypertension. Eventually, she started taking less care of herself after the death of her husband. Moreover, hypertension, made her worry about everything instead of being concerned about her health. To cope with the stress the easiest way she submitted to was to submit toe smoking. Prolonged smoking caused infections in her lungs and she started developing breathing troubles (Ahmetoglu and Chamorro-Premuzic, 2012). However, Mrs. G did not visit a doctor. In addition to this, the smoking started causing infection in the lungs. Once the lungs started becoming infected, it was unable to protect Mrs. G from germs that cause pneumonia. On the other hand, it has been seen that prolonged stress, results in the activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. The activation causes the production of cortisol which in results in the damage of the immune system. Hence, when the pneumonia causing germs attacked he the lungs of Mrs. G, the weak immune system of Mrs. G was unable to protect the lungs from the bacteria. Moreover, the stress can cause the dysfunction in the nervous system and eventually causes hypertension (Cavalcanti and Azevedo, 2013). Once the nervous system becomes weak, the person loses the capacity to think rationally and thinks about various other situations that are not important. In addition to this, the person is tensed and excited over trivial matters (Downes, Wolf and Lane, 2014). Some of the illness that has been visible in Mrs. G is also mentioned in the symptoms that are visible in the person who suffers from stress. After the death of her husband, Mrs. G moved in to a new house, as a result, she had to deal with many household chores and take upon many hassles due to transportation. Mrs. G has already been mentally weak. In addition to this, the mental weakness, she is doing a lot of hard work, which in turn affected her body. As heart is the most sensitive body organ, hence the hard work had a direct on the heart. There can be various changes in life for an individual. A person may have problems in the workplace, a person might lose a spouse, and there can be other peer related issues (Becker, 2013). However, the death of a person is given the highest ranking, which could affect the individual as the person is experiencing a loss of another person in life. The hard work that Mrs. G is going through as well as the mental health eventually contributed to the chronic heart diseases (CHD). Chronic heart disease is caused when the arteries get hardened when fat gets deposited in the arteries. Many believe that smoking can help them to cope with the stress and eventually submit to smoking. Similar is the case of Mrs. G. when she was left all alone and she had to do all the house hold works, she started smoking as a way of relieving the stress. Smoking is one of the deadly practices, which affects the person both mentally as well as physically. People also believe that will recover from heart attack. In addition to this, they do not even stop smoking. There are various rehabilitation programs for people who have suffered loss in the life. The people who think they will be cured naturally do not even attend the programs. Hence, it becomes very difficult to make them understand that the rehabilitation is for their benefit. Similar is the case of Mrs. G. she is all alone now and to protect herself from the loneliness, she has submitted to smoking. Mrs. G is also not ready to go for any rehabilitation and hence, the chronic heart disease has settled in. People who have type A personality are restless and cannot take practical decision. In addition to this, they are unable to sit in the chair and get excited with small issues. On the other hand, they are stressed up over petty issues. Mrs. G has A type personality and when she lost her husband, she moved into a new house to get out from the memory of her husband, she even indulged in various household chores which started taking the toil on her body. In a time when Mrs. G should have reacted peacefully and calmly, she reacted violently which not only caused her stress but also affected her physically. If she would have reacted calmly, she might not have changes the house, which in turn could have caused her less stress physically as the pressure of moving into new place would not have been there (Becker, 2013). As type A people are not hardy, hence, small; incidents affect them badly. In the case of MRS G, she lost her husband. Hence, the affect of the incident on the stress is quite high (Behrendt, 2012). As Mrs. G is not hardy, hence, she was unable to bear the pain of losing her husband and eventually submitted to the ill effects of stress. She was affected by the loss of her husband and eventually submitted to the pressure by taking to smoking. In addition to this, types A personality people are easily affected by the people and the society. Hence, she was unable to tackle the pressure of life that was created in her after the death of her husband (Downes, Wolf and Lane, 2014). Moreover, the age of Mrs. G was another factor that made her submitted to stress. She started smoking, hence, it affected her health and she affected by pneumonia and flu (Berger, 2015). Doctors have suggested that people who have A type personality, are more prone to the heart disease and higher risk of blood pressure. As it has been proved that Mrs. G has type A personality, hence she also had weak heart and is more prone to heart disease and stress. References Abele, D., Vazquez-Medina, J. and Zenteno-Savin, T. (2012).Oxidative Stress In Aquatic Ecosystems. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. Ahmetoglu, G. and Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2012).Personality 101. New York: Springer Pub. Company. Becker, D. (2013).One nation under stress. New York: Oxford University Press. Behrendt, R. (2012).The Evolved Structure of Human Social Behaviour and Personality. London: Karnac Books. Berger, R. (2015).Stress. Taylor and Francis. Cavalcanti, L. and Azevedo, S. (2013).Psychology of stress. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publisher's. Downes, C., Wolf, C. and Lane, D. (2014).Cellular Responses to Stress. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Engelder, T. (2014).Stress Regimes in the Lithosphere. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Haryana, N. and Punj, S. (2012).Abiotic stress. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publisher's, Inc. Morris, E. and Jackson, M. (2012).Psychology of personality. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publisher's. Muir, A. (2012).Beat stress. London: Teach Yourself. Violanti, J., Paton, D. and Dunning, C. (2012).Posttraumatic stress intervention. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Low Cost Airlines Strategy Essay Situation ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a chilly winter evening in Bangalore and Vijay Mallya looks out of the window with a Kingfisher Beer pint in his hand. He looks out at the reddish horizon and contemplates the future of his airlines The Kingfisher Airlines. He has recently bought the first low cost carrier in India, Air Deccan. With the sale of Air Deccan, the industry has seen a correction of sorts, in terms of the cost of travel. With increasing oil rates and the turmoil that the airlinesÃ¢â¬â¢ industry is currently in, Mallya needs to come up with a strategy to make best of the low cost carrier. He also needs to pull out the airlines of the losses it has been making since the past few years. Objective The objective is to study the current scenario in the Airlines Industry in India and to analyse the possible strategies that Kingfisher Airlines can adopt to increase the market share of Kingfisher Red to be the market leader in the low cost airlines segment. Company Background: Kingfisher Red, known formerly asÃ Simpli-fly DeccanÃ and prior to that asÃ Air Deccan, is aÃ low-cost airlineÃ run byÃ Kingfisher Airlines. It is headquartered in Mumbai,Ã India. Formerly known as Air Deccan, the airline was previously operated byÃ Deccan Aviation. It was started by CaptainÃ G. R. Gopinath. Less than expected growth in the Indian aviation sector coupled with overcrowding and the resultant severe competition between airlines resulted in almost all the Indian carriers, including Air Deccan, running into heavy losses. After initially trying to get in fresh capital for running the airline, Captain Gopinath eventually succumbed to pressures for consolidation. On 19 December 2007, it was announced that Air Deccan would merge with Kingfisher Airlines. We will write a custom essay sample on Low Cost Airlines Strategy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Low Cost Airlines Strategy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Low Cost Airlines Strategy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Since Indian aviation regulations prohibited domestic airlines from flying on international routes until they had operated in the domestic market for five years, it was decided to instead merge Kingfisher Airlines into Deccan Aviation, following which Deccan Aviation would be renamed Kingfisher Airlines. In its present avatar as Kingfisher Red, the airline faces stiff competition from SpiceJet, IndiGo Airlines, Jet Lite and GoAir. Kingfisher Airlines posted a net loss of Rs 1,608. 82 crore for fiscal 2009. Airlines Industry in India Indian aviation industry ranks 4th in the world after USA, China, and Japan in terms of domestic passenger volume, with a domestic passenger base of 43. 29 million. The Indian aviation industry is among one of the fastest growing industries. The number of scheduled passenger airline operator has grown to 15 and the number of aircraft in their fleet has risen to more than 400. India now has 82 operational airports against 50 in 2000. International flights have increased to 706 flights per week. Due to enhanced opportunities for international connectivity, 69 foreign airlines from 49 countries are flying into India. The governments open sky policy has lead to many overseas players entering the market and the industry has been growing both in terms of players and number of aircrafts. With the liberalization of the Indian aviation sector, the aviation industry in India has under gone a rapid transformation. From being primarily a government-owned industry, the Indian aviation industry is now dominated by privately owned full-service airlines and low-cost carriers. Private airlines account for around 80-85 per cent share of the domestic aviation market. Earlier, air travel was a privilege only a few could afford, but today air travel has become much cheaper and can be afforded by a large number of people. According to Director General of Civil Aviation(DGCA) passenger data, passenger carried by domestic airline operators have grown to 33. 9 million during January-August 2010 as against 28. 4 million over the same period a year ago. The share of private airlines constitutes around 82% of the sector of domestic aviation market. Jet Airways along with its budget arm Jet Lite captures the highest 27% market share. Kingfisher airlines ranks second with 20% market share. NACIL (National Aviation Company Limited) which, was formed in 2007 with the merger of two national carriers Air India and Indian Airlines, captures 18. 3% share. The airline with the largest fleet in the domestic market is Air India, but its market share of the number of passengers is low, and therefore results in a low fleet hare to passenger share ratio of 0. 62. Kingfisher leads the full service carrier segment with a fleet to market share ratio of 0. 95, but this also includes figures from their low cost Kingfisher Red service. Passenger market share leader Jet Airways is at 0. 82 and this includes their low fare service Jet Konnect. For a better comparison between Jet and Kingfisher, if we add-up the numbers of Jets other low fare subsidiary JetLite, the total group ratio of Jet at 0. 865 still remains well behind Kingfishers 0. 95, suggesting a far more aggressive fleet utilisation strategy by Kingfisher. Expectedly, the low fare carrier side shows much higher ratios, due to their higher usage of aircraft and also the higher number of seats offered per flight due to an all-economy configuration. The laggard is JetLite with a ratio of 1 while SpiceJet and IndiGo are neck and neck at 1. 75 and 1. 76. However, GoAir, has an industry leading, fleet to passenger share ratio of 2. 04. Clearly the airline has shaken off the demons of the past and is aggressive in their fleet utilisation. The civil aviation sector witnessed a slowdown in passenger traffic during 2008 due to a sharp rise in fuel prices coupled with global economic slowdown. Situation started improving in the second half of 2009. In 2009-10, the passenger traffic increased to 123. 73 million passengers from 108. 88 million in 2008-09. For the first time, in 2009 -10 the passenger traffic crossed 120 million mark and has recorded 123. 73 million (34. 37 million international and 89. 36 million domestic passengers) passengers. Passenger traffic (million) Source : AAI Traffic News June 2010 According to Director General of Civil Aviation passenger data, passenger carried by domestic airline operators have grown to 33. 9 million during January-August 2010 as against 28. 4 million over the same period a year ago. Recent Trend According to Airport Authority of India (AAI), the total aircraft movement increased by 3. 3% from 329. 84 thousand to 340. 9 thousand during Apr-Jun 2010 as compared to Apr- Jun 2009. The international aircraft movements have shown an increase of 7. 1% during Apr-Jun 2010. The higher growth in traffic has witnessed in Kolkata, Trivandrum, Amritsar and Delhi airport due to increase in frequency by the existing airlines. The civil aviation traffic with respect to passenger and aircraft movements is growing from past few years. The total passenger traffic handled during Apr-Jun 2010 raised by 20% to 35. 29 million from 29. 35 million over the same period previous year. During the first six months of 2010, world passenger traffic increased by 5. % with international traffic increased by 6. 7% and domestic passenger traffic increased by 5. 3%. The highest passenger traffic growth has reported in the Asia Pacific region. Demand Drivers Air traffic in the country has grown substantially over the past few years with a boom in the tourism industry as well as the introduction of low-cost airlines. The air transportation helps growth of interior regions which in turn helps industry / business sector to produce products at lower costs enabling competitiveness in the global market. India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Its share in the international trade and tourism is increasing gradually. Increase in income level (especially disposable income) along with introduction of low cost airlines has made air travelling affordable for the middle-class people. This results in growing demand for new airports in India. The Marketing Triangle One can better understand the workings of airlines by looking at its marketing triangle. There are three entities in the entire transaction: * Customer: He is the person who wishes to satisfy his need i. e. of transportation from one destination to another. Company: This is both the dreamer and the offerer. It is the various airlines, which offer its aviation services to satisfy the customers demand for transportation from one destination to another. For e. g. : The Indian airlines * Provider: these are finally the people who interact with the customers. They are the ones who carry out the final transaction. The customers actually come in contact with the service provid er and not the company. For e. g. : The Airhostess and the crew. The interaction between these three parties while providing the service takes place in the following manner: The Company is established with the basic objective of providing the specific transport service. Thus the airline industry with players like Indian airlines, jet airways, Sahara airways etc came into being. * The air service provider that is the company communicates with the customer and makes him aware of the services. It makes promises to the customer through advertising through various media. For e. g. : the TV ad of Indian airlines advertising its new sleep in seats. * The customer who gathers knowledge about the service approaches the company for availing his service in order to satisfy his need. This interface of the customer with the company is through the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction with the providers of the company. The company enables its promises to the customers through setting up facilities to deliver the promises that is by setting up ticket and enquiry counters. The outcome of the Ã¢â¬Å"to be transactionÃ¢â¬ is determined by the interaction between the provider and the customer. Hence the company aims at offering its providers with the required infrastructure and training to optimize the quality of the transaction. For eg: Yearly employee training programs and performance appraisals done by Sahara airlines. The three strategic points where the provider and the customer interact are: * Ticket purchase at the airline counter or the ticket agency. * Checking in. * During boarding. * During disembarkation Kingfisher Airlines * Kingfisher AirlinesÃ is an airline group based inÃ India. Its head office is Kingfisher House inÃ Vile Parle (East),Ã Mumbai. Kingfisher Airlines, through its parent companyÃ United Breweries Group, has a 50% stake inÃ low-cost carrierÃ Kingfisher Red. Kingfisher Airlines is one of six airlines in the world to have a 5-star rating fromÃ Skytrax, along withÃ Asiana Airlines,Ã Cathay Pacific,Ã Malaysia Airlines,Ã Qatar AirwaysÃ andÃ Singapore Airlines. Kingfisher operates more than 375 daily flights to 71 destinations, with regional and long-haul international services. In May 2009, Kingfisher Airlines carried more than a million passengers, giving i t the highest market share among airlines in India. * Kingfisher Airlines is also the sponsor of F1 racing outfit,Ã Force India, in whichÃ Vijay MallyaÃ also owns a stake. Kingfisher Airlines was established in 2003. It is owned by theÃ BangaloreÃ basedÃ United Breweries Group. The airline started commercial operations in 9 May 2005 with a fleet of four newÃ Airbus A320-200sÃ operating a flight fromÃ MumbaiÃ toÃ Delhi. It started its international operations on 3 September 2008 by connectingÃ BangaloreÃ withÃ London. * On 7 June 2010 Kingfisher became a member elect of theÃ OneworldÃ airline allianceÃ when it signed a formal membership agreement. A firm date to join the alliance will be announced once the implementation process is underway; it possibly may take 18 to 24 months. Kingfisher Red * Kingfisher Red, known formerly asÃ Simplifly DeccanÃ and prior to that asÃ Air Deccan, is a low-cost brand run byÃ Kingfisher Airlines. It is headqua rtered in Mumbai,Ã India. * Formerly known as Air Deccan, the airline was previously operated byÃ Deccan Aviation. It was started by CaptainÃ G. R. GopinathÃ and its first flight took off on 23 August 2003 fromÃ HyderabadÃ toÃ Vijaywada. It was known popularly as the common mans airline, with is logo showing two palms joined together to signify a bird flying. The tagline of the airline was Simpli-fly, signifying that it was now possible for the common man to fly. The dream of Captain Gopinath was to enable every Indian to fly at least once in his lifetime. Ã¢â¬ Air Deccan was the first airline in India to fly to second tier cities like Hubballi, Mangalore, Madurai and Visakhapatnam from metropolitan areasÃ like Bangalore andÃ Chennai. * On 25 January 2006, Deccan went public by filing aÃ red herring prospectusÃ with theÃ Securities and Exchange Board of India. Deccan planned to offload 25 percent of its stake in theÃ initial public offering (IPO) that opened on 18 May. However, due to theÃ stock marketÃ downturn at that time, Air Deccans IPO barely managed to scrape through, even after extending the issue closing date and reducing the price band. * Less than expected growth in the Indian aviation sector coupled with overcrowding and the resultant severe competition between airlines resulted in almost all the Indian carriers, including Air Deccan, running into heavy losses. After initially trying to get in fresh capital for running the airline, Captain Gopinath eventually succumbed to pressures for consolidation. On 19 December 2007, it was announced that Air Deccan would merge with Kingfisher Airlines. Since Indian aviation regulations prohibited domestic airlines from flying on international routes until they had operated in the domestic market for five years, it was decided to instead merge Kingfisher Airlines into Deccan Aviation, following which Deccan Aviation would be renamed Kingfisher Airlines. This was because Air Deccan was the older of the two airlines, and therefore would be the first to qualify for flying on international routes. The merger became effective April 2008, withÃ Vijay MallyaÃ becoming theÃ ChairmanÃ andÃ CEOÃ of the new company, while G. R. Gopinath became itsÃ Vice-Chairman. competitors * SPICEJET * SpiceJet, Indias leading low cost airline, is a reincarnation ofÃ ModiLuft. It is promoted by Ajay Singh and the Kansagra family. SpiceJet marked its entry in the Indian skies withÃ Rs. 99 fares for the first 99 days, with 9,000 seats available at this rate. * This deal was followed it up with aÃ Rs. 999 promotional scheme on select routes. Their marketing theme was offering low everyday spicy fares and great guest services to price conscious travellersÃ¢â¬ . Their aim is to compete with theÃ Indian RailwaysÃ passengers travelling in air conditioned coaches. Today, Spicejet operates 21 Boeing 737-800/900ER aircraft across 19 destinations and has a 12% share of the Indian market. * INDIGO * IndiGo AirÃ orÃ IndiGo AirlinesÃ sports the deep colour of IndiGo as its signature colour. It is a privately owned low-cost domestic airline based in Gurgaon with Indira Gandhi International Airport as its main base. IndiGo Airlines started operations on 4th August 2006 and is owned by InterGlobe Enterprises and Mr. Rakesh Gangwal. This airline is amongst the best, offering professional services, economical prices with great deals and discounted airfares. It operates to all the major cities of India. IndiGo air tickets can be booked online and the services provided are user friendly while at the same time, extremely comprehensive. IndiGo Airline provides what no other airline can. * JET LITE * JetLite, formerlyÃ Air Sahara, is anÃ airlineÃ based inÃ Mumbai,Ã IndiaÃ owned byÃ Jet Airways, the airline operates scheduled services connecting metropolitan centres in India, it operates 110 flights daily. The airline also provides helicopters which are available for charter services and aerial photography. * The airline was established on 20 September 1991 and began operations on 3 December 1993 with twoÃ Boeing 737-200Ã aircraft asÃ Sahara Airlines. Initially services were primarily concentrated in the northern sectors of India, keeping Delhi as its base, and then operations were extended to cover all the country. Sahara Airlines was rebranded asÃ Air SaharaÃ on 2 October 2000, although Sahara Airlines remains the carriers registered name. On 22 March 2004 it became an international carrier with the start of flights fromÃ ChennaiÃ toÃ Colombo. It is part of the majorÃ Sahara India PariwarÃ business conglomerate. The uncertainty over the airlines fate has caused its share of the domestic Indian air transport market go down from approximately 11% in January 2006 to a reported 8. % in April. * Jet AirwaysÃ announced its first takeover attempt on 19 January 2006, offering US$500 million (2000Ã croreÃ rupees) in cash for the airline. Ã Market reaction to the deal was mixed, with many analysts suggesting that Jet Airways was paying too much for Air Sahara. The Indian Civil Aviation Ministry gave approval in pr inciple, but the deal was eventually called off over disagreements over price and the appointment of Jet chairmanÃ Naresh GoyalÃ to the Air Sahara board. Following the failure of the deal, the companies filed lawsuits seeking damages from each other. A second, eventually successful attempt was made on 12 April 2007 with Jet Airways agreeing to payÃ Rs. 1,450 crore ($340Ã million). The deal gave Jet a combined domestic market share of about 32%. * On 16 April Jet Airways announced that Air Sahara will be renamed as JetLite. The takeover was officially completed on 20 April, when Jet Airways paidÃ Rs. 400 crore. * Jetlite has been repositioned as a value carrier offering attractive low fares. It stopped offering complimentary food on board and now offers it for purchase separately. Jet Airways has withdrawn from many of its routes and has replaced it with Jetlite operations to compete with full service carriers operating on those sectors. Market Share Reference:Ã Directorate General of Civil Aviation Load Factor Trend Reference:Ã Directorate General of Civil Aviation Cancellation Data Reference:Ã Directorate General of Civil Aviation Airline Industry- Life Cycle From the mid-1990s to the beginning of the new millennium, the aviation industry faced one of the biggest booms in its history. Worldwide increases in GDP, riding on the wave of the new economy, and a greater demand for travel resulting from globalization stimulated the airlines to healthy growth of around 4-6 percent per year. At the beginning of 2000, economic slowdown brought an end to the growth phase, and the terrorist attacks of 11 Sep 2001 and the SARS virus in 2003 exacerbated the situation. There has always been a fundamentally precarious balance within the industry profit generation and loss. One of the biggest exceptions to this rule occurred during the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, when the global economic upturn boosted travel demand. Furthermore the major airlines gained from the new economy in terms of computer technology progress, which enables new business processes such as Ã¢â¬Ënetwork managementÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëyield managementÃ¢â¬â¢, e-commerce and e-services to be supported. Quantitative analyses permitted the improvement of demand forecasting and the optimization of seats supplied in the network. Nevertheless, during these years, a group of airlines, knows as low-cost carriers, were able to generate profits and positive growth by generating a cost advantage, no frills, and a point to point network business model, in contrast to the traditional hub and spoke national flag carriers. Nowadays, the LCC business model is quite popular and is advocated as an alternative, or sometimes as a complement, for the traditional airline business model, which, on the contrary, aims to cover all market segments and city-pairs. AirlineÃ¢â¬â¢s is a typical industry where the net margins are very low. This could be attributed mainly due to the high fuel costs, Govt. Taxes and force from people to get the cheapest travel. So if we look at the below figure we understand there is a continuous crest and troughÃ¢â¬â¢s in the industry life cycle. Every time the industry goes down in margins the major players try to renew it with various offerings. In the last quarter of 2000, the fundamentally precarious balance between revenue and cost turned negative. The crisis initially started as demand slowdown followed by the cost impact of overcapacity from the supply side. Different from the situation for airlines during the Iraq war in 1991, some other additional factors turned the crisis into a perfect storm for global aviation: 1) The crisis of 2000 started at the time of a positive peak just before an economic downturn 2) The terrorist attacks of September 11 generated fear of air travel and constituted an exogenous demand shock. ) The 2003 Iraq war, together with the SARS epidemic, caused a second exogenous demand shock. 4) The full-service carriers were making few business innovations compared with the network and yield management practices developed in the 1990s The low cost business model was developed in the early 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s in the US but it was after more than 2 decades that it came to India. It was initially perceived a regional phenomenon, limited to a niche market which was willing to pay only less and connecting secondary city-pairs. The competitive pressure associated with the evolution of low cost models affected the traditional airlines models. Their reactions was to tend to adopt cost cutting strategies as they were driven to adopt some of the characteristics of the low-cost airlines in an attempt to survive. Challenges faced by Aviation Industry The growth in the aviation sector and capacity expansion by carriers have posed challenges to aviation industry on several fronts. These include shortage of workers and professionals, safety concerns, declining returns and the lack of accompanying capacity and infrastructure. Moreover, stiff competition and rising fuel costs are also negatively impacting the industry. 1. Employee shortage: There is clearly a shortage of trained and skilled manpower in the aviation sector as a consequence of which there is cut-throat competition for employees which, in turn, is driving wages to unsustainable levels. Moreover, the industry is unable to retain talented employees. 2. Regional connectivity: One of the biggest challenges facing the aviation sector in India is to be able to provide regional connectivity. What is hampering the growth of regional connectivity is the lack of airports. 3. Rising fuel prices: As fuel prices have climbed, the inverse relationship between fuel prices and airline stock prices has been demonstrated. Moreover, the rising fuel prices have led to increase in the air fares. 4. Declining yields: LCCs and other entrants together now command a market share of around 46%. Legacy carriers are being forced to match LCC fares, during a time of escalating costs. Increasing growth prospects have attracted amp; are likely to attract more players, which will lead to more competition. All this has resulted in lower returns for all operators. 5. Gaps in infrastructure: Airport and air traffic control (ATC) infrastructure is inadequate to support growth. While a start has been made to upgrade the infrastructure, the results will be visible only after 2 3 years. 6. Trunk routes: It is also a matter of concern that the trunk routes, at present, are not fully exploited. One of the reasons for inability to realize the full potential of the trunk routes is the lack of genuine competition. The entry of new players would ensure that air fares are brought to realistic levels, as it will lead to better cost and revenue management, increased productivity and better services. This in turn would stimulate demand and lead to growth. 7. High input costs: Apart from the above-mentioned factors, the input costs are also high. Some of the reasons for high input costs are: Withholding tax on interest repayments on foreign currency loans for aircraft acquisition. Increasing manpower costs due to shortage of technical personnel. . Seasonal Business: Airline is an industry thatÃ¢â¬â¢s seasonal, having peak season during april may, holidays etc. But the trend in slightly shifting as the number of people has been increasing. 9. Exogenous events can suddenly affect demand- As said earlier in the life cycle, any exogenous events could have a huge negative impact in occupancy rate. In the near future, Kingfisher Red may have to face significant challenges such as: * Realigning their com petitive strategies to become profitable. More Players entering the Low cost carrier segment. * Pursuing aggressive cost reduction. * Constraints due to poor infrastructure for aviation in India. EMERGENCE OF LOW-COST AIRLINES IN INDIA For the first 15 years of deregulation the demand for scheduled passenger air transportation was driven by the constraints and confines of its providers principally, the network carriers. Network carriers were able to avoid cost-side pressures by focusing on revenue side strategies Ã¢â¬â largely centered on the high yield business traveller. The focus led to innovations like sophisticated global distribution system, revenue management, and frequent flyer programs that helped the airlines segment demand. You are Ã¢â¬â or we were Ã¢â¬â the linchpin in that strategy, as business and other timeÃ¢â¬âsensitive travellers accounted for only 20% of the airline traffic, but for 80% of network airline. This strategy worked because the business traveller grew accustomed to paying high fares and often did not have an attractive alternative to the high fare, and also because the airlines enjoyed a greater ability to control the number of seats available to discretionary travellers. In short, in the post-regulation world travellers Ã¢â¬â particularly business traveller Ã¢â¬â did have the greater option than before, but, even with the impact of the occasional low-fare carrier, they were often at the mercy of major carriers when it came to price. In effect, demand for passenger service was driven, even controlled, by the supply that network carriers were willing to deploy in the market. The above reasons and the price transparency that the internet has created for all types of passengers have led to the emergence of a new breed of low-cost carriers. These developments have seriously compromised the ability of legacy carriers to charge higher prices to travellers on the routes where they overlap with the low-cost carriers. At the end of 2000 the demand for the business class and other high-end products fell dramatically, as the corporate travel managers became more cost-conscious. Customers continue to fall into segments with regard to demand for products on offer. Not every airline will be able to satisfy every customer but the entrance of low cost airlines has pushed customer segmentation. There is a sharper focus for the shorter routes and the target is the price conscious and quality conscious customer. This has led to stiffer competition for the nonÃ¢â¬âbusiness passenger and price conscious business passenger. Low Cost Carriers The entry of these low cost carriers has several far reaching implications on the aviation sector in India. Now low cost airlines have proliferated and offer real, lasting competition to their network rivals. This generation of low cost carriers has newer fleets, a better on-time performance and completion factors than the first wave of post-deregulation start-ups. The fare transparency delivered by the internet and the expansion of low cost carriers has increased the price-sensitivity even of business passenger. The demand for more affordable air travel is quite robust. Increasing numbers of business travellers use low fare airlines as a matter of corporate travel policy whichever country they have been launched in. It has to a very large extent influenced the mass transportation and domestic tourism. Typical low-cost carrier business model practices include: 1. A single passenger class 2. A single type of airplane (commonly the Airbus A320 or Boeing 737), reducing training and servicing costs). 3. A simple fare scheme (typically fares increase as the plane fills up, which rewards early reservations) 4. Unreserved seating (encouraging passengers to board early and quickly) 5. Flying to cheaper, less congested secondary airports and flying early in the morning or late in the evening to avoid air traffic delays and take advantage of lower landing fees 6. Short flights and fast turnaround times (allowing maximum utilization of aircraft) 7. Simplified routes, emphasizing point-to-point transit instead of transfers at hubs(again enhancing aircraft utilization and eliminating disruption due to delayed passengers or luggage missing connecting flights) 8. Emphasis on direct sales of tickets, especially over the Internet (avoiding fees and commissions paid to travel agents and Computer Reservations Systems) 9. Encouraged use and issuance of the electronic ticket 10. Employees working in multiple roles, for instance flight attendants also cleaning the aircraft or working as gate agents (limiting personnel costs) 11. Free in-flight catering and other complimentary services are eliminated, and replaced by optional paid-for in-flight food and drink (which represent an additional profit source for the airline). 12. Aggressive fuel hedging programs. 13. Unbundling of ancillary charges (showing airport fees, taxes as separate charges rather than as part of the advertised fare) to make the headline fare appearÃ lower. Strategies o f LCC: Cost advantage: Low cost airlines provide air service at costs 25-50% lower than a full service airline. The cost structure of a full service Indian airline is given in the figure below: An Illustration of the Cost structure of Full Service Airlines as a % of Operating Expense: (Source: ICRA report, Civil Aviation, April 2005) Breakdown of Cost savings (Source: www. indiastats. com) The cost advantage of the low cost carrier is a result of savings on various factors given below: Full service airlines provide their passenger with many attendant services like hot meals, frequent flyer programmes, spacious legroom etc. While low cost carriers do not provide frills like hot meals and frequent flyer programmes and work with the minimum number of air hostesses on the flight. Removing business class, storage space for the meals and limited seat pitch (maximum inclination of the seat) makes space for additional seats which can increase the seat capacity of the plane by 20%. Low cost carrier aircrafts take less time to leave the airport after landing which increases their flight time by 20-25% as compare to the full service carrier aircrafts. These airlines do not issue tickets to passengers to save costs on printing, mailing and processing tickets. Passengers are issued a booking number, which they quote at airport check-in, and present their photograph to collect their boarding pass. They also save on distribution costs by disinter mediating travel agents and central reservation systems and selling through internet and call centre. They also try to minimize capital costs and costs of the crew and hangerage. In Europe and the U. S. low cost airlines avoid flying into the mainland airports and save on high parking and landing fees. India has very few secondary airports, because of which the airport charges constitute a sizeable portion of the cost structure that could be reduced considerably. The LCC Phenomenon in India Southwest Airlines, now a major carrier in the U. S. , operating local routes in Texas in the 1970s pioneered the low cost carrier business model. In India, the model was introduced in 2003 by Air Deccan. However, the same descriptive label masks the significant differences in ways the model has worked in India vs. U. S. First, in terms of market share, LCCs accounted for almost 30% of all domestic passengers carried in 2006. As of November 2006, it rose to 35%. This rate of market penetration of LCCs is remarkable given that the market share was zero in August 2003. Low cost carrier operations account for 44% of all flights within India compared to 19% in the U. S.. The second significant difference has to do with the relationship between low cost and low fare. In U. S. , the LCCs offering low fares are also truly low cost operations. In India, the airlines that offer low fares are in reality not low cost operations. They are LCCs only in name. Among the LCCs in India, Spice Jet has the lowest unit cost at 6. cents per ASK, which is comparable with Southwest, Easy Jet, and Jet Blue. But this is more than twice that of the best performer, Air Asia with unit cost of slightly over 3 cents per ASK.. This flies in the face of what LCCs outside India like Ryanair have done when th
Friday, March 13, 2020
Getting Fit Dialogue and Reading Getting fit in English refers to doing exercise in order to feel better and live a more healthy lifestyle. People often go to the gym to get in shape or get fit. While theyre at the gym theyll do a wide variety of exercises such as push-ups and sit-ups. Its important to always do stretching exercises as well, these should be done both before and after you go to the gym.Ã At they gym, youll fid lots of equipment such as weight lifting machines, exercise bikes, ellipticals, and treadmills. Most health clubs also offer jogging tracks and areas for aerobics, as well as classes in fitness activities such as Zumba, or spinning classes. Most gyms offer changing rooms nowadays. Some even have whirlpools, steam rooms, and saunas to help you relax and unwind your muscles after a long hard workout. The important thing to remember when getting fit is that you need to be consistent. In other words, youll need to go to the gym on a regular basis. Maybe three or four times a week. Its a good idea to do a wide range of exercises rather than focus on just one such as weight lifting. For example, do fifteen minutes of stretching and aerobics, combined with a half hour of bike riding and another fifteen minutes of weight lifting on two days of the week. On the other two, play some basketball, go jogging and use the elliptical. Varying your routine will help keep you coming back, as well as help keep your whole body fit.Ã In the Gym Dialogue Hello, my name is Jane and Id like to ask a few questions about getting fit.Hi, Jane. What can I do for you? I need to get in shape.Well, youve come to the right place. Have you been doing any exercise lately? Im afraid not.OK. Well start off slow. Which type of exercise do you enjoy doing? I like doing aerobics, but I hate jogging. I dont mind doing some weight-lifting, though.Great, that gives us plenty to work with. How often can you work out? Twice or three times a week would be good.Why dont we start with an aerobics class twice a week followed by a little weight lifting? Sounds fine to me.Youll need to start slowly and build up gradually to three or four times a week. OK. What kind of equipment will I need?Youll need a leotard and some sneakers. Is that all? How do I sign up for the classes?Well need you to join the gym and then you can choose which classes fit your schedule best. Great! I cant wait to get started. Thanks for your advice.No problem. Ill see you in aerobics class! Key Vocabulary from Reading and Dialogue (do) exerciseadviceaerobicschanging roomellipticalequipmentexercise bikeget fitÃ get in shapeÃ joggingjoinleotardpush upÃ saunasign upsit-upsneakersspinning classsteam roomstretchingtreadmillunwindweight lifting machinesweight liftingwhirlpoolÃ Zumba More Intermediate Level Dialogues Making SuggestionsOn the TelephoneSeeing a DoctorDescribing a Friend - Uses of Like
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Health care - Essay Example The judge declared parts of Affordable Health Care Act inconsistent with the intentions of the constitution which guarantees all citizens the right to choose, therefore, according to the judge, the act was unconstitutional. In his ruling, Federal Judge Henry Hudson hinged his judgment on whether the government the mandate to force every individual citizen to purchase health insurance. Based on this opinion, the federal judge rejected the government's argument that to purchase health insurance was a form of tax. The judge noted that in putting in place the Affordable Health Care Act, the actÃ¢â¬â¢s regulatory scheme was conceived as an application of Commerce Clause powers. The federal judge rejected any attempt to stretch the Commerce Clause in order to allow the government mandate the insurance purchases, claiming that such a move would open the gate to unrestrained federal power. For the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s penalty due to noncompliance to be effective under the law, the j udge opines that it must aim to affect a legitimate exercise of the Commerce Clause. Further, Federal Judge Henry Hudson sees the Affordable Health Care Act being about more that the issue of designing a scheme of universal health insurance coverage or regulation of insurance business. According to the judge, the core of the matter is an individual's right to choose to take part in the scheme. Support his stand, the federal judge notes that the Constitution had given congress specific powers. Therefore, the judge claims that power that the constitution does not give the federal government is reserved to the states while those not outlawed are reserved to the citizens. Even as Federal Judge Henry Hudson declared the Affordable Health Care Act unconstitutional, Judge George Caram Steeh found the act constitutional in the ruling of the Thomas More Law Center v. Obama case in which the judge gave an order denying plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s motion. In his opinion, Judge Steeh noted that a refusa l to get insurance amounted to an example of an activity that affect interstate commerce to a large extend. According to the judge, those who selects not to get insurance cover have in effect, made an active decision to pay for their medical expenses from their pockets. This decision, the judge added, had an impact on taxpayers, health care providers, and the insured citizens who will have to foot the bill for those who do not take insurance cover. Further, Judge Steeh claim although the matter on constitutionality of the Affordable Health Care Act presented an issue of first impression, there was a rational ground to make conclusions that decisions not to take insurance cover increased the cost of coverage, therefore affecting interstate commerce. From the point of views presented by Federal Judge Henry Hudson and judge Steeh, it is my opinion that Federal Judge Henry Hudson presents a better argument. The government should recognize its citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s right of choice. To penaliz e those that do not take the insurance cover is paramount to dictating to them the kind of medicine they should take when they get sick. People have the right to decide the kind of treatment they need and at what time. Although it is a noble effort that would guarantee medical service to many deserving citizens, the federal government, through the Affordable Health Care Act has no legal right to force citizens to take medical cover. If the
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Case Study Example Oscar then graduated from a community college before he worked for a local jewelry shop. Despite the fact that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know much about diamonds, Oscar was still able to receive diamonds and a Diamond Grading Certificate thanks to his hard work. Rodriguez later opened a jewelry store of his own. After some of his customers told him there were better deals in the internet, Rodriguez decided to try selling on the internet too. After a while, he found a diamond dealer willing to give him diamonds which he started selling on the internet. After this his business grew enabling him to close the store he had opened and to become an entrepreneur who was savvy. In 2003, his company, Abazias.com went public. While it is true that Rodriguez was at the right place at the right time, there are also other factors that contributed to his success. His success can be attributed to the advice that was given to him by girlfriend to his roommate (Robbins & Judge, 2009). It is this advice given to him that sparked his curiosity leading him to start selling diamonds online. Mr. Rodriguez was worked very hard and this enabled him to open his own jewelry shop. Courtesy of his commitment, Oscar continued his education even receiving Diamonds and Diamonds Grading certification. Mr. Rodriquez had a vision. After he realized that his job as at the local jeweler would not help him achieve the goals he had set out to achieve, he started exploring other options that were available to him (Briggs Myers, McCaulley, Quenk, Hammer, & Mitchell, 2009). He even went ahead and started learning everything that there was to learn about diamonds. The other character that made Mr. Rodriquez successful was the fact that he was an ambitious man. He examined his situation and realized that his job, then, did not give him the opportunities for growth. He told himself that he would never become anything if he continued to work in his present jobÃ¢â¬ (The Gainesville Sun,
Thursday, January 30, 2020
As Psychology Essay One of the key differences between the concepts of STM and LTM is duration. Ã¢â¬Å"DurationÃ¢â¬ refers to how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available. Short term memories donÃ¢â¬â¢t last very long. An example of STM in action would be trying to remember a seven-digit phone number that you have just been given. This is maintained in the short-term memory by REPETITION until the number is dialled, and then fades once the conversation starts. The way most people keep information in their STM for more than a few seconds is to rehearse it. So rehearsal is one way of keeping a memory active. The result of verbal rehearsal is that STM are held in the STM store and eventually become long term. Duration of LTM LTM refers to memories that last anywhere for 2 hours to 100 years plus, i. e. anything that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t short term. Some memories are very long lasting. For example Shepard (1967) tested duration of LTM. He showed participants 612 memorable pictures, one at a time. An hour later they were shown some of these pictures among a set of others and showed almost perfect recognition. Four months later they were still able to recognise 50% of photographs. The material to be remembered was more meaningful to the participants and therefore the duration of the LTM was better. Key study on duration of STM Lloyd and Margaret Peterson (1959) conducted a landmark study of the duration of STM. They enlisted the help of 24 students attending their university. The experimenter said a consonant syllable to the participant followed by a three-digit number (e. g. WRT 303 or SCX 591). The consonant syllable was selected to have no meaning. Immediately after hearing the syllable and number, the participants had to count backwards from this number in 3s or 4s until told to stop. Then the participants were asked to recall the nonsense syllable. The reason for counting backwards was to stop the participants rehearsing the syllable because rehearsal would aid recall. Each participant was given two practice trials followed by eight trials. On each trial the retention interval (time spent counting backwards) was different. They found that participants remembered about 90% when there was only a 3-second interval and about 2% when there was an 18-second interval. This suggests that, when rehearsal is prevented, STM lasts about 20 seconds at most. Evaluation The findings from the Peterson and Peterson study have been challenged. We might argue that, in this experiment, participants were relying on more than STM alone because they knew they were going to be asked to recall the items after an interval filled with a distracting activity. Other research such as Marsh et al, (1997) has suggested that when participants do not expect to be tested after this interval, forgetting may occur after just 2 seconds. This suggests that our understanding of the duration of STM may not be as clear-cut as first thought. In fact, more recent research even suggests that the duration of STM is not as short as Peterson and PetersonÃ¢â¬â¢s study would suggest. NairneÃ¢â¬â¢s et al (1999) found that items could be recalled after as long as 96 seconds. In NairneÃ¢â¬â¢s study, participants were asked to recall the same items across trials, whereas in the earlier study different items were used on each trial, which would have led to interference between items, decreasing recall. Capacity and Encoding Capacity is a measure of how much can be held in memory. It is measured in terms of bits of information such as number of digits. STM has a very limited capacity (less than 7 chunks of information) whereas LTM has potentially unlimited capacity. Increasing the capacity of STM The magic number 7+/-2 George Miller (1956) wrote a memorable article called Ã¢â¬Å"The magic number seven plus or minus twoÃ¢â¬ . He reviewed psychological research and concluded that the span of immediate memory is 7; people can cope reasonably well with counting seven dots flashed onto a screen but not many more than this. Miller also found out that people can recall 5 words as well as they can recall 5 letters Ã¢â¬â we chunk things together and can then remember more. The size of the chunk matters Simon (1974) found that people had a shorter memory span for larger chunks, such as 8-word phrases, than smaller chunks, such as one-syllable words. Evaluation Cowan (2001) reviewed a variety of studies on the capacity of STM and concluded that STM is likely to be limited to above 4 chunks. This suggests that STM may not be as extensive as was first thought. Vogel et al, (2001) looked at the capacity of STM for visual information and also found that 4 items was about the limit. Encoding in STM and LTM PAGE 23 Encoding is the way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory. Information enters the brain via the senses. It is then stored in various forms such as visual codes (picture), acoustic forms (sounds), or a semantic form (the meaning of the experience). Information in the STM is mainly encoded acoustically (information is represented as sound); whereas information in LTM tends to be encoded semantically (information is represented by its meaning). Acoustic and semantic encoding We can compare the ways information is stored in STM and LTM in terms of encoding of the memory trace. Acoustic coding involved coding information in terms of the way it sounds The multi-store model of memory The multi-store model of memory (MSM) is an explanation of how memory processes work. The MSM was first described by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin in 1968. There is three stores/components in the MSM which are the sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. Sensory memory The sensory memory is composed of several stores which are the eyes, ears, nose, etc, and the corresponding areas of the brain. If a personÃ¢â¬â¢s attention is focused on one of the sensory stores, then the data is transferred to STM. Attention is the first step in remembering something. Short-term memory Information held in STM is in a Ã¢â¬Å"fragile stateÃ¢â¬ . It will disappear relatively quickly if rehearsal is prevented. Information will also disappear if new information enters STM pushing out the original information. This happens because STM has a limited capacity. Long-term memory The second step is moving information from STM to LTM. Atkinson and Shiffrin said that this also happens through rehearsal. The more something is rehearsed the more it will be remembered. This kind of rehearsal is referred to maintenance rehearsal. Evaluation The sensory store Sperling (1920) gave participants a grid of digits and letters for 50 milliseconds. They were either asked to write down all 12 items or they were told they would hear a tone immediately after the exposure and they should just write down that row. When asked to report the whole thing their recall was poorer (5 items recalled, about 42%) then when asked to give one row only (3 items recalled, 75%). This show that information decays rapidly in the sensory store. The serial position effect Glazer and Cunitz (1966) gave participants a list of 20 words, presented one at a time, and then asked to recall words they could remember. They tended to remember the words from the start of the list (primary effect) and from the end of the list (recency effect) but were less good at recalling words in the middle. The primary effects occur because the first words are best rehearsed and transferred to LTM. The recency effect occurs because these words are in the STM when people start recalling the list. Areas of the brain associated with STM and LTM One way to demonstrate the existence of separate stores in memory is to link STM and LTM to specific areas of the brain. Modern techniques of scanning the brain can be used to take images of the active brain and enable us to see what region is active when a person is undertaking particular tasks. Research (Beardsley, 1977) has found that the prefrontal cortex is active when individuals are working on a task in STM. The working memory model Baddeley and Hitch (1974) used the term Ã¢â¬Ëworking memoryÃ¢â¬â¢ to refer to that bit of memory that you are using when you are working on a complex task which requires you to store information as you go along. The components of the working memory Central executive This is the key component of the working memory. The function of the central executive is to direct attention to particular tasks, determining at any time how Ã¢â¬ËresourcesÃ¢â¬â¢ are allocated to tasks. The central executive has a very limited capacity. Phonological loop This also has a limited capacity. The phonological loop deals with the auditory information and preserves the order of information. Baddeley (1986) further subdivided this loop into the phonological store and an articulatory process. The phonological store holds the words you hear, like an inner ear. The articulatory process is used for words that are heard or seen (inner voice). Visuo-spatial sketch pad The Visuo-spatial sketch pad is used when you have to plan a spatial task (like getting from one room to another). Visual and/or spatial information is temporary stored here. Visual information is what things looks like and spatial information is the relationship between things. Logie (1995) suggested that the Visuo-spatial sketchpad can be divided into a visual cache (store) and inner scribe which deals with spatial relations. Episodic buffer Baddeley (2000) added the episodic buffer because he realised the model needed a general store. The episodic buffer is an extra storage system that has a limited capacity. It integrates information from the central executive, the phonological loop and the Visuo-spatial sketchpad and also from the long-term memory. Evaluation Doing two tasks using the same or different components Hitch and Baddeley (1976) gave participants two tasks to do simultaneously. Task 1 occupied the central executive and task 2 either involved the articulatory loop or both the central executive and articulatory loop. Task 1 was slower when given a task involving both the central executive and articulatory loop. The speed on task 1 was the same whether using the articulatory loop or no extra task. This shows that doing two tasks that involve the same component causes difficulty. Evidence for the central executive Bunge et al. (2000) used an fmri to see which parts of the brain were most active when participants were doing two tasks (reading a sentence and recalling the final word in each sentence). The same brain areas were active in either dual- or single Ã¢â¬â task conditions but there was significantly more activation in the dual-task condition indicating that increased demands were reflected in brain activity. Evidence for the Visuo-spatial sketchpad Baddeley et al. (1975b) demonstrated the existence of thee Visuo-spatial sketch pad. Participants were given a visual tracking task (they had to track a moving light with a pointer). At the same time they were given kne of two other tasks: task 1 was to describe all the angles on the letter F, task 2 was to perform a verbal task. Task 1 was very difficult but not task 2. This is also evidence related to the effects of doing two tasks using the same or different components. Evidence for the episodic buffer Baddeley et al. (1987) found that, when participants were shown words and then asked for immediate recall, their performance was much better for sentences (related words) then for unrelated words. This supports the idea of an immediate memory store for itesms that are neither visual nor phonological. Accuracy of Eye Witness testimony Loftus and Palmer were interested in whether misleading interesting distorted the accuracy of an eyewitnessÃ¢â¬â¢s immediate recall. What did they do? 45 students were shown seven films of different traffic accidents. After each film the participants were given a questionnaire which asked them to describe the accident and then answer a series of specific questions about it. There was one critical question. This question was about Ã¢â¬Ëhow fast were the cars going when they hit each other? One group of participants were given this question whereas the other five groups were given the verbs smashed, collided, bumped or contacted in place of the word hit. What did they find? The group given the world Ã¢â¬ËsmashedÃ¢â¬â¢ estimated a higher speed that the other groups (about 41 mph). The group given the word Ã¢â¬ËcontactedÃ¢â¬â¢ estimated the lower speed (about 30 mph). Evaluation Supporting DO LATER (PAGE 33) Factors influencing the accuracy of eye witnessing testimony Many researchers have looked at the relationship between anxiety and accuracy in eyewitness testimony. Deffenbacher et al. 2004) carried out a meta-analysis of 18 studies published between 1974 and 1997, looking at the effects of heightening anxiety on accuracy of eyewitness recall. From these studies it was clear that there was considerable support for the hypothesis that high levels of stress negativity impacted on the accuracy of eyewitness memory. Anxiety enhances recall Christianson and Hubienet te (1993) found when they questioned 58 real witnesses to bank robberies. Those witnesses who were threatened in some way were more accurate in their recall and remembered more detail than those who had been onlookers. This continued to be true even 15 months later. The weapon focus effect Johnson and Scott (1976) identified the weapon-focus effect. In their initial experiment, Loftus et al. used two conditions, one involving a weapon and one not. In both conditions participants heard a discussion in an adjoining room. In condition 1 a man emerged holding a pen and with grease on his hands. In conditions 2 the discussion was rather more heated and a man emerged holding a paperknife covered in blood. When asked to identify the man from 50 photos, participants in condition 1 were 49% more accurate, compared with 33% accuracy in condition 2. This suggests that the weapon may have distracted attention from the person holding it and therefore explain why eyewitnesses sometimes have poor recall for certain details of violent crimes. Evaluation Explaining the apparent contradiction Deffenbacher suggests that this contradiction in research finding could best be explained with reference to the Yerkes-Dodson law, which states that performance improves with increase of arousal up to some optical point then declines with further increase. Many researchers believe that anxiety effects in eye-witness testimony are curvilinear. This means that small to medium increases in arousal may increase the accuracy of memory, but high levels interfere with accuracy. Those studies which had found improved memory accuracy were most likely dealing with increased arousal within the first part of the Yerkes-Dodson curve, whereas studies which showed that accuracy decreases with increased arousal were most likely operating in the second part of the curve. MORE EVALUATION!! The cognition interview Fisher and Geiselman (1992) developed an interviewing technique, the cognitive interview. The original cognitive interview technique could be characterised by four distinct components 1. Report everything (hypermnesia) 2. Mental reinstatement of context- the interviewer encourages the interviewee to mentally recreate the environment and contacts from the original incident. 3. Changing the order- the interviewer may try alternative ways through the timeline of the incident, for example by reversing the order in which events occurred. 4. Changing the perspective- the interviewee is asked to recall the incident from multiple perspectives The first two components are based on the principle that if there is consistency between the actual incident and the recreated situation, there is an increased likeliness that witnesses will recall more detail therefore more accurate in their recall. The latter two components are based on the assumption that information that observed can be retrieved through a number of different routes into an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s memory. Evaluation Kohnken et al. , (1999) did a meta-analysis of 53 studies found, on average, an increase of 34% in the amount of correct information generated in the cognitive interview compared with standard interviewing techniques. Milne and Bull (2002) examined the relative effectiveness of each of the four components of the cognitive interview. Undergraduate students and children were interviewed using one of the components of the cognitive interview and compared to a control condition (where they were instructed to simply Ã¢â¬Ëtry againÃ¢â¬â¢). When participants were interviewed using a combination of the components Ã¢â¬Ëmental reinstatementÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëreport everythingÃ¢â¬â¢ their recall was significantly higher than in all other conditions.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Software Patents in Western Europe Introduction The world is becoming smaller and smaller. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a catch-line clichÃ © anyone who is familiar with the internet has heard a thousand times. Email provides nearly instant communication across the globe, massive files containing every imaginable piece of information are transmitted in the blink of an eye, and the World Wide Web makes it all accessible to the common individual with moderate computer skills. There is no denying it, just like the IBM slogan, the internet has changed the way the world does business. One key to doing business is the patent. Meant to reward and encourage innovation, the patent gives the creator of an idea or invention a temporary monopoly on their product. This grants small businesses a foothold in a market that would otherwise be dominated by giant corporations. Thus patents give life to competition, the cornerstone of capitalism. However, with the advent of the computer industry the issue of patenting software programs has become an intense debate. These intangible sequences of ones and zeros are coveted like gold and in some cases are the very livelihood of numerous businesses. The State of Affairs in Western Europe There are two camps in Europe battling out the issue of software patents. On one side we have Ã¢â¬Å"Brussels technocrats and technology giants such as Microsoft, SAP, and Nokia, all of which insist that Europe must do more to protect intellectual property or risk compromising its global competitiveness.Ã¢â¬ 1 The basic argument of this side is that patents are necessary if Europe wants to compete with U.S. and Chinese innovation. On the other side of the debate there is Ã¢â¬Å"an army of economists, left-leaning politicians, and programmers such as Linux creator Linus TorvaldsÃ¢â¬ 1 who present the argument that Ã¢â¬Å"software patents are a creativity-crushing weapon wielded by multinationals to bash [startups].Ã¢â¬ 1 The open-source community, which produces software without patents for all people to use, is particularly strong in Europe. It is their opinion that software patents put programs under lock and key and they would like to see Europe reject software patents c ompletely. For the past two years the European Union has been working to stiffen its existing patent laws while balancing the sometimes conflicting requirements of its 15 members. However, the process was upended in September when Ã¢â¬Å"the European Parliament -- under heavy last-minute lobbying by open-source advocates -- unexpectedly approved a draft law that effectively banned all software patents.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
One of the most defining features of Filipinos which sets them apart from other races, if not currently the most defining, is the shape of their nose. Unlike the higher and narrower noses of Caucasians, full-blooded Filipinos bear what the locals would often colloquially refer to as the Ã¢â¬Å"flat noseÃ¢â¬ . There is a wide variety in the types of nose shapes a person may acquire. Being a polygenic trait, genetics play a very big role how an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s nose will turn out. One of the most defining features of Filipinos which sets them apart from other races, if not currently the most defining, is the shape of their nose. Unlike the higher and narrower noses of Caucasians, full-blooded Filipinos bear what the locals would often colloquially refer to as the Ã¢â¬Å"flat noseÃ¢â¬ . There is a wide variety in the types of nose shapes a person may acquire. Being a polygenic trait, genetics play a very big role how an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s nose will turn out. Thousands of years of living in Southeast Asia had kept our noses lower and wider to better adapt to the hot and humid climates of a tropical country. (Raymond, 2011) That being the case, it is inevitable that the FilipinoÃ¢â¬â¢s nose will be shorter than those who had to live with the cold, unless they had a Caucasian parent or ancestor who passed them down a different set of genes than their peers. To inherit the CaucasianÃ¢â¬â¢s fine nose is normally seen as a Ã¢â¬Å"blessingÃ¢â¬ in the Filipino society as it is believed to greatly enhance oneÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty. Pango, sarat, dapalong (dapa ilong). These are only few of the derogatory terms for a person who was deemed unfortunate to have a small nose, whereas those graced with a higher nose are called artistahin. Influences of Western colonizers may possibly be how Filipinos came to think tall or high noses are more attractive or, conversely, that flatter noses are inferior. The colonizers had more than enough time to ingrain the idea that they are the superior race. Aside from such conditioning, most people seek what it is they do not have, and this does apply to the FilipinosÃ¢â¬â¢ desire for taller noses. Because of the negative view on flat noses, many had gone to cosmetic surgeons to finally achieve their desired nose shapes. People who had less money to spare alleviate their noseÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"unsightlinessÃ¢â¬ through the use of cosmetics, particularly by applying nose lines which can give the illusion of a narrower nose. There are even those who pinch their noses in hopes that it will grow higher. Ingenious and amusing as it is, this sort of behavior can be considered maladaptive. It is better to use oneÃ¢â¬â¢s resources in working with what we consider as a flaw instead of working to change it. If one cannot learn to love oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self for as simple thing as a flat nose, it would prove very difficult to love yourself when societyÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible standards keep depreciating your true value. References Raymond, Joan. Ã¢â¬Å"The Shape of a Nose. Ã¢â¬ Scientific American 16 Aug. 2011: n. pag. 16 Aug. 2011. Web. 28 Jan. 2014. .
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The First DayÃ¢â¬ by Edward P. Jones ItÃ¢â¬â¢s only natural to keep vivid memories of certain monumental moments in life, such as the first day of school, for a long time. Ã¢â¬Å"The First DayÃ¢â¬ by Edward P. Jones tells the story of a mother and daughter on the daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s first day of school. In the beginning of the story, the mother goes to great lengths to prepare her daughter for this important occasion. After the preparation is over, she takes her daughter to a particular school before being told that she is in the wrong school district. They are directed to the correct school and that is where the daughter is registered to attend. However, the mother is not able to fill out the registration form because she cannot read or write. Along with love,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Jones) Also, as her mother turns away and leaves her in the care of the teacher, the first thing she states is that she can see where her mother has Ã¢â¬Å"darned one of her socks the night before.Ã¢â¬ (Jones) Instead of pro viding any commentary on her ascension to independency from her mother, the first thing she notes is the condition of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s sock, showing her embarrassment toward her. Although the daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s shame in her mother is evident, she is also prideful of her as well. The strong love that the mother and daughter share is pervasive throughout the story. The story is being told by the daughter after she is all grown up. The fact that Jones uses such vivid detail on the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s preparation for her daughters first day of school shows that the daughter loved her mom and all that she did for her. The daughter recalls that her mother spent a lot of time preparing her when she says, Ã¢â¬Å"My mother has uncharacteristically spent nearly an hour on my hair that morning, plaiting and replaiting so that now my scalp tingles.Ã¢â¬ (Jones) She also remembers that her Ã¢â¬Å"pale green slip and underwear are new, the underwear having come three to a plastic package with a little girl on the front who appears to be dancing.Ã¢â¬ (Jones) The daughter having remembered details like these illustrate that she has an immense love and takes prideShow MoreRe latedAnalysis Of The First Day Of Senior Year For Dinah Jane1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis was the first day of senior year for Dinah Jane. The familiar smell of the blossom tree by the entrance greeted her senses. The last three years had been amazing for her and she spent it with people she deeply cared for. She was satisfied with her class schedule or more so excited. She started skipping her way to first period: Poetry. 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